3. Python syntax – learning python for absolute beginners in most easy way

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By Waqas Ali

Python is renowned for its simplicity and readability, and this is largely due to its clean and intuitive syntax. In this guide, we will delve into the key aspects of Python syntax, providing you with a solid foundation to start writing code in Python.

1. Indentation and Code Blocks

Python syntax

Unlike many other programming languages that use curly braces to indicate code blocks, Python syntax relies on indentation to define the scope of functions, loops, and conditional statements. Proper indentation is crucial as it directly impacts how your code is executed. Here’s an example:

# Correct indentation
if True:
    print("This is indented correctly.")
    print("This is not indented correctly.")

Remember that inconsistent indentation may lead to python syntax errors.


Comments in Python syntax start with the “#” symbol. They are essential for adding explanatory notes to your code or temporarily disabling specific lines during debugging.

# This is a comment
print("This line is not commented.")  # This is an inline comment

Also Read : Introduction to Python

3. Variables and Data Types in Python Syntax

Python - Datatypes

In Python, you can create variables without explicitly specifying their data type. The data type is determined dynamically based on the value assigned to the variable. Here are some commonly used data types:

  • Strings: A sequence of characters enclosed in single or double quotes.
  • Integers: Whole numbers without decimal points.
  • Floats: Numbers with decimal points.
  • Lists: Ordered collections of items.
  • Tuples: Similar to lists, but immutable (cannot be changed after creation).
  • Dictionaries: Key-value pairs, where each value is associated with a unique key.
  • Booleans: Represents True or False.
name = "John"
age = 25
height = 5.9
fruits = ["apple", "banana", "orange"]
person = {"name": "John", "age": 25}
is_student = True

4. Control Flow Statements

Python - Control Flow

Python provides various control flow statements to control the flow of your program. These include:

  • Conditional Statements (if, elif, else): Execute different blocks of code based on certain conditions.
x = 10
if x > 5:
    print("x is greater than 5.")
elif x == 5:
    print("x is equal to 5.")
    print("x is less than 5.")
  • Loops (for, while): Repeat a block of code until a specific condition is met.
# For loop
fruits = ["apple", "banana", "orange"]
for fruit in fruits:

# While loop
count = 0
while count < 5:
    count += 1

5. Functions in Python Syntax

Python - functions

Functions are reusable blocks of code that perform specific tasks. They help modularize code and improve code readability.

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def add_numbers(a, b):
    return a + b

result = add_numbers(5, 10)
print(result)  # Output: 15

6. Input and Output

Python provides straightforward ways to interact with users through input and output operations.

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# Input
name = input("Enter your name: ")
print("Hello, " + name + "!")

# Output
age = 25
print("Your age is:", age)

7. Comments on Lines and Code Readability

Python encourages writing clean, readable code. Consider the following tips:

  • Keep lines of code relatively short (around 79 characters) for better readability.
  • Use meaningful variable names to convey the purpose of the variable.
  • Add comments to explain complex sections of your code.

Also read : what is WordPress and how to make a website with It

Let’s explore some more aspects of Python syntax that contribute to its user-friendly and expressive nature.

9. String Manipulation

Strings are an essential part of any programming language, and Python provides a rich set of built-in string manipulation methods. Here are some commonly used string operations:

  • Concatenation: Combining two or more strings using the + operator.
first_name = "John"
last_name = "Doe"
full_name = first_name + " " + last_name
print(full_name)  # Output: John Doe
  • String Formatting: Python offers various methods for formatting strings, such as using f-strings (formatted string literals).
name = "John"
age = 30
formatted_string = f"My name is {name} and I am {age} years old."
print(formatted_string)  # Output: My name is John and I am 30 years old.
  • String Slicing: Extracting portions of a string using indexing.
message = "Hello, World!"
substring = message[0:5]  # Extracts characters from index 0 to index 4 (excluding 5)
print(substring)  # Output: Hello
  • String Methods: Python provides numerous string methods for tasks like converting cases, finding substrings, and more.
text = "Python is fun!"
print(text.upper())  # Output: PYTHON IS FUN!
print(text.find("fun"))  # Output: 10 (index of the first occurrence of "fun")

10. List Comprehensions

List comprehensions are a concise and elegant way to create lists in Python. They allow you to generate new lists based on existing lists with a single line of code.

# Example of list comprehension
numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
squared_numbers = [num ** 2 for num in numbers]
print(squared_numbers)  # Output: [1, 4, 9, 16, 25]

List comprehensions can be used with conditional statements as well, enabling you to filter elements while creating the new list.

# Example of list comprehension with conditional statement
numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
even_numbers = [num for num in numbers if num % 2 == 0]
print(even_numbers)  # Output: [2, 4]

11. Exception Handling

Exception handling is crucial for writing robust and reliable code. Python allows you to catch and handle exceptions gracefully using the try, except, and finally blocks.

    result = 10 / 0
except ZeroDivisionError as e:
    print("Error:", e)
    print("This block will always execute.")

12. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

Python is an object-oriented programming language, which means it supports the creation of classes and objects. OOP allows you to model real-world entities and encapsulate data and behavior within classes.

# Example of a simple class
class Person:
    def __init__(self, name, age):
        self.name = name
        self.age = age

    def greet(self):
        return f"Hello, my name is {self.name} and I am {self.age} years old."

# Creating an object (instance) of the Person class
person1 = Person("John", 30)
print(person1.greet())  # Output: Hello, my name is John and I am 30 years old.

13. Lambda Functions

Lambda functions, also known as anonymous functions, are small and simple functions defined without a name. They are often used in situations where a small function is required for a short period.

# Example of a lambda function
add = lambda x, y: x + y
result = add(5, 10)
print(result)  # Output: 15

14. File Handling

Python makes it easy to work with files, allowing you to read data from files, write data to files, and manipulate file content.

# Reading from a file
with open("data.txt", "r") as file:
    content = file.read()

# Writing to a file
with open("output.txt", "w") as file:
    file.write("This is some content.")


Python’s syntax is designed to be intuitive and human-friendly, making it an excellent choice for beginners and experienced programmers alike. Understanding the key concepts of Python syntax, such as indentation, variables, data types, control flow, functions, and input/output operations, lays a strong foundation for your journey into Python programming. As you practice writing code in Python, you’ll discover the beauty of its syntax and how it simplifies the process of translating ideas into functional programs. Happy coding!

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